Glossary of Terms (page 1)
adaptivechosenciphertext  A version of the chosenciphertext attack where the cryptanalyst can choose ciphertexts dynamically.
A Cryptanalyst can mount an attack of this type in a scenario in which he or she has free use of a piece of decryption hardware, but is unable to extract the decryption key from it.
adaptivechosenplaintext  A special case of the chosenplaintext
attack in which the cryptanalyst is able to choose plaintexts dynamically, and alter his or her choices base on the results
of previous encryptions.
adversary  Commonly used to refer to the opponent, the enemy, or
any other mischievous person that desires to compromise one's security.
AES  The Advanced Encryption Standard that will replace DES
(The Data Encryption Standard) around the turn of the century.
algebraic attack  A method of cryptanalytic attack used against
block ciphers that exhibit a significant amount of mathematical structure.
algorithm  A series of steps used to complete a task.
Alice  The name traditionally used for the first user of
cryptography in a system: Bob's friend.
ANSI  American National Standards Institute.
API  Application Programming Interface.
attack  Either a successful or unsuccessful attempt at breaking
part or all of a cryptosystem. See algebraic attack, birthday attack, brute force attack, chosen ciphertext attack, chosen
plaintext attack, differential cryptanalysis, known plaintext attack, linear cryptanalysis, middleperson attack.
authentication  The action of verifying information such as
identity, ownership or authorization.
biometrics  The science of using biological properties to
identify individuals; for example, fingerprints, retina scan and voice recognition.
birthday attack  A bruteforce attack used to find collisions.
It gets its name from the surprising result that the probability of two or more people in a group of 23 sharing the same
birthday is greater than 1/2.
bit  A binary digit, either 1 or 0.
blind signature scheme  Allows one party to have a second party
sign a message without revealing any (or very little) information about the message to the second party.
block  A sequence of bits of fixed length; longer sequences of
bits can be broken down into blocks.
block cipher  A symmetric cipher which encrypts a message by
breaking it down into blocks and encrypting each block.
block cipher based MAC  MAC that is preformed by using a block
cipher as a keyed compression function.
Bob  The name traditionally used for the second user of cryptography
in a system; Alice's friend.
boolean expression  A mathematical expression in which all variables
involved are either 0 or 1; it evaluates to either 0 or 1.
brute force attack  This attack requires trying all (or a large
fraction of all) possible values till the right value is found; also called an exhaustive search.
